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Article ID: 698896

Why zebrafish (almost) always have stripes

Ohio State University

A mathematical model helps explain the key role that one pigment cell plays in making sure each stripe on a zebrafish ends up exactly where it belongs.

Released:
13-Aug-2018 1:05 PM EDT
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Article ID: 698882

Study Reveals Broad ‘Genetic Architectures’ of Traits and Diseases

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Scientists at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health have developed a powerful method for characterizing the broad patterns of genetic contributions to traits and diseases.

Released:
13-Aug-2018 11:55 AM EDT
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Article ID: 698825

Research Grant to Determine How Specific Drugs Work or Fail in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Is Awarded to Miles Miller, PhD, by the American Thyroid Association

American Thyroid Association

The American Thyroid Association has awarded a 2018 Research Grant to Miles Miller, PhD, principal investigator at the Massachusetts General Hospital Center for Systems Biology and Assistant Professor of Radiology at Harvard Medical School. Dr. Miller’s research project is titled “Co-opting tumor-associated macrophages in anaplastic thyroid cancer to enhance immune-checkpoint blockade response.” Treatment of advanced metastatic cancer has seen a revolution over the last several years, as new therapeutic strategies have become successful at harnessing the power of the immune system to durably attack malignant and mutated cancer cells. Immune-checkpoint blockade therapies targeting programmed-death 1 (PD1) signaling on T-cells have been successful in the treatment of solid cancers, including heavily mutated melanomas and lung cancers. Unfortunately, these treatments only work in a fraction of patients, and resistance is often associated with the presence of a type of tumor-promoting imm

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13-Aug-2018 11:05 AM EDT
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Article ID: 698829

Research Grant to Study the Action of T-Regulatory Cells in Thyroid-Antibody-Positive Pregnant Women Awarded to Stephanie Behringer-Massera, MD, by the American Thyroid Association

American Thyroid Association

The American Thyroid Association has awarded a 2018 Research Grant to Stephanie Behringer-Massera, MD, Clinical Fellow at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Dr. Behringer-Massera’s project is titled “T regulatory cells in thyroid-antibody-positive pregnant women.” A fetus, which shares half its genetic material with the father, is considered a foreign body in the mother’s womb. The only way that it can implant in the uterus without being rejected is if the mother’s immune system is suppressed, which happens through T-regulatory-cell action. The more T regulatory cells (Tregs) are released, the more the immune system is suppressed and the more likely the pregnancy can successfully be brought to term. In women with autoimmune thyroid disease, this process is disrupted. These women are found to have an abnormal Treg response to pregnancy and have Treg levels as low as women who are not pregnant. They are more likely to have miscarriages in the first trimester.

Released:
13-Aug-2018 11:05 AM EDT
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  • Embargo expired:
    13-Aug-2018 11:00 AM EDT

Article ID: 698768

Doctor-Patient Discussions Neglect Potential Harms of Lung Cancer Screening, Study Finds

University of North Carolina Health Care System

Although national guidelines advise doctors to discuss the benefits and harms of lung cancer screening with high-risk patients because of a high rate of false positives and other factors, those conversations aren’t happening the way they should be, according to a study by researchers from the University of North Carolina Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center.

Released:
9-Aug-2018 1:05 PM EDT
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Article ID: 698871

Duke Team Finds Missing Immune Cells That Could Fight Lethal Brain Tumors

Duke Health

Researchers at Duke Cancer Institute have tracked the missing T-cells in glioblastoma patients. They found them in abundance in the bone marrow, locked away and unable to function because of a process the brain stimulates in response to glioblastoma, to other tumors that metastasize in the brain and even to injury.

Released:
13-Aug-2018 10:05 AM EDT
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Article ID: 698818

An Ion Channel Differentiates Newborn and Mature Neurons in the Adult Brain

University of Alabama at Birmingham

Newborn granule cells show high excitability that disappears as the cells mature. Now University of Alabama at Birmingham researchers have described key roles for G protein-mediated signaling and the late maturation of an ion channel during the differentiation of granule cells.

Released:
10-Aug-2018 10:05 AM EDT
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Article ID: 698808

Scientists Uncover New Details in How Sense of Smell Develops

Washington University in St. Louis

Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have uncovered new details in how the olfactory epithelium develops. The new knowledge could help scientists prove that turbinates and the resulting larger surface area of the olfactory epithelium are one definitive reason dogs smell so well.

Released:
9-Aug-2018 6:05 PM EDT
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  • Embargo expired:
    9-Aug-2018 4:00 PM EDT

Article ID: 698704

Late effects of treatment hinder independence of adult survivors of childhood brain tumors

St. Jude Children's Research Hospital

In the first study of its kind, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital investigators have found that more than half of pediatric central nervous system tumor survivors do not achieve complete independence as adults. Researchers looked at six aspects of independence in more than 300 survivors, including employment, independent living, marital status, assistance with routine or personal care needs, and the ability to drive.

Released:
8-Aug-2018 10:05 AM EDT
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Article ID: 698781

Case Western Reserve Researcher and International Colleagues Identify Genetic Mutation Underlying Severe Childhood Brain Disorder

Case Western Reserve University

Ashleigh Schaffer, PhD, assistant professor of genetics at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, and a team of global genetics experts have discovered a genetic mutation and the faulty development process it triggers, causing a debilitating brain-based disorder in children. The findings, published in Nature Genetics, identify mutations in the alpha-N-catenin gene, (aka CTNNA2), which promotes cell adhesion and causes pachygyria, one of the most serious developmental brain defects in humans. Most patients are severely intellectually impaired, and are unable to walk or care for themselves. Children diagnosed with the rare disease have a life expectancy of about 10 years.

Released:
9-Aug-2018 11:05 AM EDT
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